Material photocharging is a process in which electrons are accumulated in a semiconductor upon band gap excitation followed by quenching of the photogenerated holes by reductants. Negative charge induced by accumulation of electrons is compensated by small positively charged ions, among which the most ubiquitous is H+. Semiconductors photocharged with electrons have been studied since 1980th, but rediscovered recently in the context of PCET reactions for reduction of organic substrates in dark and using them as components of solar batteries. Forty years of research resulted in rich experimental data.

The database provides a summary of the following parameters of photocharged semiconductors:

  • Maximum specific concentration of electrons stored in 1 gram of a semiconductor (δmax, mol[e] g-1)
  • Maximum average number of electrons stored per semiconductor particle (<nmax>)
  • Initial rate of photocharging (RPC, mol[e] g-1 s-1)
  • Initial rate of discharging (RDC, mol[e] g-1 s-1)

The database provides analysis of dependence of these parameters on the following materials characteristics:

  • Specific surface area (SSA, m2 g-1)
  • Particle volume (VP, nm3)

as well as photocharging process parameters:

  • type of electron donor, for example, ethanol versus Li[Et3BH]
  • concentration of electron donor (CED, mol L-1)
  • type of counter ion, such as H+ versus Li+

and discharging of semiconductors in dark:

  • type of electron acceptor, for example, O2 versus TEMPO
  • concentration of electron acceptor (CEA, mol L-1)

To explore the database using interactive Tableu Public vizzes click on the version link below.

How to cite:

Savateev, O., Photocharging of Semiconductor Materials: Database, Quantitative Data
Analysis, and Application in Organic Synthesis. Adv. Energy Mater. 2022, 12, 2200352.


Dependence of RPC on CED (v 1.1)

Dependence of RPC on SSA (v 1.1)

Electron storage

Dependence of δmax on Vp (v 1.1)

Dependence of <nmax> on VP (v 1.1

Dependence of RPC on δmax (v 1.1)

Discharging of SCP(e/X+) in dark

Dependence of RDC on Vp (v 1.1)

Dependence of RDC on δ (v 1.1)

Dependence of RDC on CEA (v 1.1)